Formula Milk for Infants | Infant Formula With Iron

The vast majority of infants in the United States are fed human milk substitutes by 6 months of age. This food source, although inferior to human milk in multiple respects, promotes more efficient growth, development, and nutrient balance than commercially available cow milk.
Manufacturers often add new ingredients to infant formulas in an attempt to mimic the composition or performance of human milk. However, the addition of these ingredients is not without risks as a result of a range of complex issues, such as bioavailability, the potential for toxicity, and the practice of feeding formula and human milk within the same feeding or on the same day.
Assessing the safety of ingredients new to infant formulas by comparing the proposed formulas with human milk also presents both regulatory and research issues. From a research standpoint, clinical studies that assess the effects of new ingredients are difficult to design because infants cannot be randomized to consume formulas or human milk. Furthermore, there may be significant non-nutritional confounding variables between the groups, including factors related to which mothers choose to breastfeed. Finally, human-milk composition varies considerably among and within individuals over time, while the content of infant formulas generally remains constant.
From a regulatory standpoint, the effect of an ingredient new to infant formulas is usually driven by the manufacturer's desire to produce a product that mimics the advantages of breastfeeding. This motivation implies that formulas in their current state are less efficacious (e.g., neurologically or immunologically), although not necessarily unsafe when compared with human milk. Thus the safety of any addition of an ingredient new to infant formulas will need to be judged against two controls: the previous iteration of the formulas without the added ingredient and human milk.
HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFANT FORMULA
Milk-Based Formula
Human milk substitutes existed